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CAUSES OF HYPERTENSION

Today, as we confront history most complex economic and social problems, a great hiatus exists between. What we profess and what we are, what we say and what we do. The unhealthy and polluted atmosphere of our society has been the cause of great concern. Not a single day passes without an event of anxiety, the shooting prices, increasing unemployment both in rural and urban areas, the indiscipline, population explosion, regional imbalances, rampant corruption, free operation of black money, expensive election system, defective education system, bureaucratic delays and hurdles. Disintegrated families, broken marriages are the major cause of the existing unrest, violence and agitations. We are living in an age of explorations, explosions and paradoxes. We have conquered the unconquerable and achieved things beyond the wildest dreams of our ancestors. Science has changed our world into a place of abundance and plenty. But the lust for money has hardened our hearts, silenced our scruples and corrupted our moral sense. We are hardly conscious of the fact that the pace of biological degeneration is fast accelerating. Dishonest pretences and disco influences. We are also living in a world of stress and strain, struggle and strife. Everybody seem to be in a hurry in this age of anxiety. If you are an average busy man or woman, coping with just routine problems, your day is too short. You rush to work in the morning and return at night fighting your way through crowds, and boarding buses. Your daily schedule on the job or in the home is so tight that at the end of the day you are up against so many pulls, pressures and complications. Different people have different ways of responding, acting and reacting to all these pressures situations and problems. In many cases of hypertension, the cause is unknown. But certain cause and psychological factors can give birth to hypertension.

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

The world is too much with us. We have no time or mood to enjoy the beautiful sights and sounds of nature. Modern man has become lazy and lethargic. He has no time for doing physical exercise. The incidence of hypertension is low in people who maintain a high degree of physical activity. The risk of developing hypertension is 40% greater in persons who donot do any physical exercises. Physical exercises such as brisk walking, yoga and playing games have beneficial effects and can maintain the blood pressure.

OBESITY 

Obesity is caused due to the disturbances of some of the endocrime glands, like the thyroid, pituitary and the sex glands. In most cases obesity is the direct result of a life of ease and over eating. Medical experience strongly suggests greater risks for overweight persons in respect to most of the disease and disorders. Although overweight and obesity are not the same, most over weight persons are obese. Psychological factors are operative in every person whether  he is obese or not. An increased body weight or obesity has a great impact on Blood pressure; The caloric restriction may influence in reversing this process.

DIET

The diet plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure. The diet rich in plant fibers either alone or with a low fat, low sodium can lower the BP in hypertensive patients. The more intake of diet rich in plants fibers or fats raise the blood pressure.

CAFFEINE

Medical evidence suggests that caffeine contained in two cups of coffee may rise the blood pressure by 5 mm Hg in infrequent uses of caffeine. The B.P. does not rise in habitual users, indicating a phenomenon tolerance in them. It is also observed that there was no effect on BP when hypertensive abstained from coffee.

NARCOTIC DRUG

There is psychological or sometimes a physical dependence upon the effect of the drug. Generally these drugs which cause psychological dependence are termed as habit forming and those drugs which cause physical dependence are called addicting. Since psychological and physiological reactions are closely related. Psychological dependence rests upon a state of Euphoric which a narcotic drug creates. When heroin, opium are used frequently they create craving for the drugs which raise the blood pressure in particular and proves a hazard for the health. The action of cocaine on the brain is very powerful, a single injection may cause serious troubles of the function of the brain. The prolonged abuse of drugs may affect the spinal cord and cause convulsions. By the regular use and abuse of drugs, will power diminishes, capricious temper, irritability, obstinacy, nervousness, insomnia, and mental disorders are developed which in turn can raise the blood pressure.

DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN C 

The story of the vitamins, their discovery, their positive functions in maintaining health is fascinating. Vitamins are one of a group of organic substances present in minute amount in natural food stuffs which are essential to normal metabolism and lack of which in the diet causes deficiency disease. Asorbic Acid is a white, crystalline compound which dissolves readily in water. The most important function of the Ascorbic Acid is to control which it exercise on the ability of cells to produce inter Cellular material. In other words vitamin C is like a binding which holds the cells in proper relation to each other and to the fluid which bathes and nourished them. There is an inverse relationship between. BP and plasma vitamin C also lower the BP in hypertensives and diabetics.

MISUSE OF REST AND RELAXATION 

Modern man feels tense, over wrought, nervous and anxious. He says Yes, Relaxation is fine but I have not the time. In the hours of leisure and rest, he takes recourse to drugs leisure and rest, he takes recourse to drugs pills, tranquillisers and beverages which give him temporary relief but they prove disastrous to his mental and physical health. He misuses the hours of rest and relaxation by sitting in coffee houses, and clubs, puffing a cigarette and having some rounds of whisky. All these things prove disastrous to his health and contribute in increasing hypertension. The necessity for relaxation with yoga is far more pressing than it ever was.

SALT RESTRICTIONS

It has been established that a high consumption of salt raise the blood pressure and low consumption decreases it. The effect of salt does not only depend upon the common salt that we add to our food but also upon the sodium chloride that is naturally present in foodstuffs. Four decades back when we had no adequate medicine to lower the blood pressure, the doctors would advise salt-free-diet to their patients.

CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM SUPPLEMENTS

It is also established that low potassium content in the food elevates the blood pressure. It is important to maintain balance between sodium and potassium. A diet rich in sodium and poor in potassium is likely to elevate the blood pressure. Potassium is contained in green vegetables and fruits. The relationship between the calcium intake and the BP is still debatable. Some studies showed a little fall in BP while there was no charge in others, the calcium intake has also been found to be less among hypertensives as compared to normotensives.

From the heart, blood surges thought the aorta to the arteries throughout the body. From the arteries, smaller vessels called arterioles branch out. From the arterioles, the blood flows to the smallest vessels, the capillaries. The capillaries carry the blood to the individual cells of the body where oxygen and other chemicals are delivered and waste products are collected. The capillaries then connect with venules, which run into veins which in turn, flow in to the venue cavae. The arteries have layers of smooth muscle cells, elastic fibers and connective tissue. Arteries are called the life lines of the body. By a slow and steady process of degeneration, hypertension produces a thickening of the arterial wall and deposits of fatty material on the walls of the arteries. These deposits obstruct the flow of blood in the effected arteries supplying blood to the heart, brain, kidneys and legs. In the heart angina appears and in the brain attack of paralysis may occur. The deposition of cholesterol on the arterials wall do not occur in the day or so. It is a gradual process which occurs in many years. High blood pressure aided by the metabolic abnormalities of high blood cholesterol results in clogging of the arteries.

CHOLESTEROL

Cholesterol is a fatty insoluble molecule that is widely found in the body and is synthesized from saturated fatty acids in the liver. Cholesterol is an important substance in the body, being a component of cell membranes and a precursor in the production of steroid Hormones and bile salts. An elevated level of blood cholesterol is associated with Arteriosclerosis and this may occur with Diabetes. There appears to be a relationship between the high consumption of saturated animal fats (which contain cholesterol and greater chances of coronary heart disease. It is generally recommended that people should reduce their consumption of saturated fat and look for alternative in the form of unsaturated fats which are found in vegetables. In the blood, cholesterol forms complexes with proteins to produce lipoproteins. There are two forms of cholesterol lipoproteins high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins is the form that promotes the builds up fatty plaques in artery walls, leading to higher risks of heart diseases and stroke.

cholesterol is an important component of all cell membranes and is vital to cell survival and growth. Cholestrol is also key precursor or intermediate compound in the production by the body of numerous biologically important substances, collectively called steroids. These include various essential hormones plus bile acids the major excretory product of cholesterol metabolism but also important in the absorption of dietary fat.

The human body contains about 140-145 grams of cholesterol which is constantly being used and replenished, though at different rates in different tissues. Except among  strict vegetarians, the diet provides part of the body cholesterol needs directly, the rest is produced internally from other foodstuffs, chiefly fats. Although most body tissues can make cholesterol, the main non dietary source is the liver. Like other fatty substances, cholesterol is insoluble in plasma unless combined with carrier molecules called lipoproteins.

Disturbances in cholesterol metabolism or its transport may be associated directly or indirectly with various disorders including gallstones, certain type of cysts and tumors and fatty deposits, which may be laid down under the skin, around tendons or elsewhere. The most important cholesterol associated disease is atherosclerosis. This is degenerative disease of the blood vessels and usually begins with the deposition of lipoprotein borne fatty substances especially cholesterol, in the inner most layers of the walls of arteries. In some instances elevated blood cholesterol levels may be genetically determined. The three major dietary factors, affecting the level of LDL cholesterol in the blood are the total amount of fat consumed. The most effective dietary methods of lowering LDL cholesterol levels are to remove the total amount of fat eaten

STRESS AND SLEEP DISORDERS

Stress is a regular, recurrent, easily reversible state that is characterized by relative quiescence and by a great increase in the threshhold of response to external stimuli relative to the walking state. Sleep is a physiologic state of relative unconsciousness and inaction of the voluntary muscles. Sleep is made up of two physiological states, non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. In normal people NREM sleep is a peaceful state relative to waking. The pules rate is typically, slowed 5 to 10 beats a minute below the level of restful waking and is very regular. Respiration is similarly affected and blood pressure also tends to be low, with few minute to minute variations. The resting muscle potential of the body musculature is lower in REM sleep than in a walking state. Episodic, involuntary body movements are present in NREM sleep. There are few rapid eye movements, if any, and seldom any penile erections in men. Blood flow through most tissues, including cerebral blood flow is slightly reduced. REM sleep has also been termed Paradoxical sleep Pulse respiration and blood pressure in human are all high during REM sleep much higher than during NREM sleep and often higher than during waking. Brain oxygen use increase during REM sleep. The most distinctive feature of REM sleep is dreaming. Dreams during REM sleep are typically abstract. Dreaming does occur during NREM sleep but it is typically lucid.

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